Their forefathers were brought to American colonies as slaves in the 17th and 18th centuries. In the past African Americans have been known by many names. They were called Negroes, Blacks and Coloureds. In the last 30 years the term African Americans has officially been used.
Visit Website In the 17th and 18th centuries, black slaves worked mainly on the tobacco, rice and indigo plantations of the southern coast, from the Chesapeake Bay colonies of Maryland and Virginia south to Georgia.
One of the first martyrs to the cause of American patriotism was Crispus Attucks, a former slave who was killed by British soldiers during the Boston Massacre of Some 5, black soldiers and sailors fought on the American side during the Revolutionary War. But after the Revolutionary Warthe new U.
Cotton Gin In the late 18th century, with the land used to grow tobacco nearly exhausted, the South faced an economic crisis, and the continued growth of slavery in America seemed in doubt. Around the same time, the mechanization of the textile industry in England led to a huge demand for American cotton, a southern crop whose production was unfortunately limited by the difficulty of removing the seeds from raw cotton fibers by hand.
But ina young Yankee schoolteacher named Eli Whitney invented the cotton gina simple mechanized device that efficiently removed the seeds.
Congress outlawed the African slave trade inthe domestic trade flourished, and the slave population in the U. By it had reached nearly 4 million, A history of the african americans more than half living in the cotton-producing states of the South. History of Slavery Slaves in the antebellum South constituted about one-third of the southern population.
Most slaves lived on large plantations or small farms; many masters owned fewer than 50 slaves. Slave owners sought to make their slaves completely dependent on them, and a system of restrictive codes governed life among slaves.
They were usually prohibited from learning to read and write, and their behavior and movement was restricted. Many masters took sexual liberties with slave women, and rewarded obedient slave behavior with favors, while rebellious slaves were brutally punished.
A strict hierarchy among slaves from privileged house slaves and skilled artisans down to lowly field hands helped keep them divided and less likely to organize against their masters.
Slave marriages had no legal basis, but slaves did marry and raise large families; most slave owners encouraged this practice, but nonetheless did not usually hesitate to divide slave families by sale or removal.
Slave Rebellions Slave rebellions did occur within the system—notably ones led by Gabriel Prosser in Richmond in and by Denmark Vesey in Charleston in —but few were successful. The slave revolt that most terrified white slaveholders was that led by Nat Turner in Southampton County, Virginia, in August Abolitionist Movement In the North, the increased repression of southern blacks only fanned the flames of the growing abolitionist movement.
Free blacks and other antislavery northerners had begun helping fugitive slaves escape from southern plantations to the North via a loose network of safe houses as early as the s. This practice, known as the Underground Railroadgained real momentum in the s and although estimates vary widely, it may have helped anywhere from 40, toslaves reach freedom.
Although the Missouri Compromise was designed to maintain an even balance between slave and free states, it was able to help quell the forces of sectionalism only temporarily.
|African American History | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed||Visit Website To satisfy the labor needs of the rapidly growing North American colonies, white European settlers turned in the early 17th century from indentured servants mostly poorer Europeans to a cheaper, more plentiful labor source: Beginning aroundwhen a Dutch ship brought 20 Africans ashore at the British colony of Jamestown, Virginiaslavery spread quickly through the American colonies.|
|The early history of blacks in the Americas||Exactly what portion of the African American population is of solely African ancestry is not known. Over the past and more years in the United States, considerable racial mixture has taken place between persons of African descent and those with other racial backgrounds, mainly of white European or American Indian ancestry.|
|African Americans | History from Slavery to the Civil Rights Movement | African Americans Today||Middle Passage Before the Atlantic slave trade there were already people of African descent in America.|
Kansas-Nebraska Act Inanother tenuous compromise was negotiated to resolve the question of slavery in territories won during the Mexican-American War. Four years later, however, the Kansas-Nebraska Act opened all new territories to slavery by asserting the rule of popular sovereignty over congressional edict, leading pro- and anti-slavery forces to battle it out—with considerable bloodshed—in the new state of Kansas.
Inthe Dred Scott decision by the Supreme Court involving a slave who sued for his freedom on the grounds that his master had taken him into free territory effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise by ruling that all territories were open to slavery.
The insurrection exposed the growing national rift over slavery: Brown was hailed as a martyred hero by northern abolitionists, but was vilified as a mass murderer in the South. Civil War The South would reach the breaking point the following year, when Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln was elected as president.
Within three months, seven southern states had seceded to form the Confederate States of America ; four more would follow after the Civil War began. Abolition became a goal only later, due to military necessity, growing anti-slavery sentiment in the North and the self-emancipation of many African Americans who fled enslavement as Union troops swept through the South.
When Did Slavery End? Despite seeing an unprecedented degree of black participation in American political life, Reconstruction was ultimately frustrating for African Americans, and the rebirth of white supremacy—including the rise of racist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan KKK —had triumphed in the South by Almost a century later, resistance to the lingering racism and discrimination in America that began during the slavery era would lead to the civil rights movement of the s, which would achieve the greatest political and social gains for blacks since Reconstruction.African American History The history of African Americans in the United States has been a paradox of incredible triumph in the face of tremendous human tragedy.
This site serves as a portal to the vast and growing array of information on the Web and in other sources on the thirty seven million African Americans in the nation.
Because African Americans made up some 70 percent of the bus company’s riders at the time, and the great majority of Montgomery’s black citizens supported the bus boycott, its impact was immediate. About 90 boycotters, including King, were indicted under a law forbidding conspiracy to obstruct the operation of a business.
The history of African Americans in the United States has been a paradox of incredible triumph in the face of tremendous human tragedy. This site serves as a portal to the vast and growing array of information on the Web and in other sources on the thirty seven million African Americans in the nation.
African Americans, one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ancestry, but many have nonblack ancestors as well. African Americans are mainly of African ancestry, but many have nonblack ancestors as .
an end to efforts to protect the civil rights of African Americans. Thousands of African Americans migrate out of the South to escape oppression. Tennessee passes the first of the “Jim Crow” segregation laws, African American History Timeline: Author.
African Americans have at various times in United States history been referred to as African, colored, Negro, Afro-American, and black, as well as African American. Exactly what portion of the African American population is of solely African ancestry is not known.
Over the past and more years in.