An introduction to newtons theory of action and reaction

From this equation one can derive the equation of motion for a varying mass system, for example, the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation. Newton's third law An illustration of Newton's third law in which two skaters push against each other.

All Rights Reserved Introduction It has been said that if the Ancient Romans, with their advanced civilization and knowledge of the sciences, had been able to develop a steam motor, the course of history would have been much different.

The development of the electric motor in modern times has indicated the truth in this theory. The development of the electric motor has given us the most efficient and effective means to do work known to man.

Because of the electric motor we have been able to greatly reduce the painstaking toil of man's survival and have been able to build a civilization which is now reaching to the stars. The electric motor is a simple device in principle.

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It converts electric energy into mechanical energy. Over the years, electric motors have changed substantially in design, however the basic principles have remained the same. The phenomena of magnetism, AC current and basic motor operation will be covered. Magnetism A permanent magnet will attract and hold metal objects when the object is near or in contact with the magnet.

The permanent magnet is able to do this because of its inherent magnetic force which is referred to as a "magnetic field". In Figure 1the magnetic field of two permanent magnets are represented by "lines of flux". These lines of flux help us to visualize the magnetic field of any magnet even though they only represent an invisible phenomena.

The number of lines of flux vary from one magnetic field to another. The stronger the magnetic field, the greater the number of lines of flux which are drawn to represent the magnetic field.

The lines of flux are drawn with a direction indicated since we should visualize these lines and the magnetic field they represent as having a distinct movement from a N-pole to a S-pole as shown in Figure 1.

Another but similar type of magnetic field is produced around an electrical conductor when an electric current is passed through the conductor as shown in Figure 2-a.


These lines of flux define the magnetic field and are in the form of concentric circles around the wire. The "Left Hand Rule" of Figure 2-b states that if you point the thumb of your left hand in the direction of the current, your fingers will point in the direction of the magnetic field.

Figure 1 - The lines of flux of a magnetic field travel from the N-pole to the S-pole. Figure 2 - The flow of electrical current in a conductor sets up concentric lines of magnetic flux around the conductor.

An introduction to newtons theory of action and reaction

Figure 3 - The magnetic lines around a current carrying conductor leave from the N-pole and re-enter at the S-pole. When the wire is shaped into a coil as shown in Figure 3, all the individual flux lines produced by each section of wire join together to form one large magnetic field around the total coil.

As with the permanent magnet, these flux lines leave the north of the coil and re-enter the coil at its south pole. The magnetic field of a wire coil is much greater and more localized than the magnetic field around the plain conductor before being formed into a coil.

This magnetic field around the coil can be strengthened even more by placing a core of iron or similar metal in the center of the core.

The metal core presents less resistance to the lines of flux than the air, thereby causing the field strength to increase. This is exactly how a stator coil is made; a coil of wire with a steel core.

The advantage of a magnetic field which is produced by a current carrying coil of wire is that when the current is reversed in direction the poles of the magnetic field will switch positions since the lines of flux have changed direction.

This phenomenon is illustrated in Figure 4. Without this magnetic phenomenon existing, the AC motor as we know it today would not exist. Figure 4 - The poles of an electro-magnetic coil change when the direction of current flow changes. Magnetic Propulsion Within A Motor The basic principle of all motors can easily be shown using two electromagnets and a permanent magnet.

An introduction to newtons theory of action and reaction

Current is passed through coil no. A permanent magnet with a north and south pole is the moving part of this simple motor. In Figure 5-a the north pole of the permanent magnet is opposite the north pole of the electromagnet.

Similarly, the south poles are opposite each other. Like magnetic poles repel each other, causing the movable permanent magnet to begin to turn. After it turns part way around, the force of attraction between the unlike poles becomes strong enough to keep the permanent magnet rotating.

The rotating magnet continues to turn until the unlike poles are lined up. At this point the rotor would normally stop because of the attraction between the unlike poles.

What is Newton's third law? (article) | Khan Academy

Figure 5-b Figure 5 If, however, the direction of currents in the electromagnetic coils was suddenly reversed, thereby reversing the polarity of the two coils, then the poles would again be opposites and repel each other.Delegation strategies for the NCLEX, Prioritization for the NCLEX, Infection Control for the NCLEX, FREE resources for the NCLEX, FREE NCLEX Quizzes for the NCLEX, FREE NCLEX exams for the NCLEX, Failed the NCLEX - Help is here.

Podcast: Play in new window | Download | Embed We’ve all seen the breathless stories about the latest sign of the coming Artificial Intelligence apocalypse, and we’ve all seen the fine print revealing those stories to be empty hype.

What is Newton's 3rd law of rotational motion? Please visit following link for brief introduction to my theory: Chronomechanics (Chronomechanics) Views.

Francis Tawdrous, Some of the examples of action reaction pairs are mentioned below: 1) Take a swimmer, for instance. A swimmer pushes the water backwards by his/her hands and in.

Newton's Laws of Motion; Introduction and Theory Newton's Laws are the essential part of Dynamics—the area of physics that studies the cause of motion experienced by an object. Newton's Third Law establishes the connection between the action-reaction pair of forces.

If two objects collide with each other, then the force of the action. June saw excited reports that NASA was working on a faster than light warp drive starship.

Astonishingly, weeks later we are being told that NASA has also successfully tested a device which could push along a space vehicle without consuming any propellant.

Demons and Silences Posted by: Jack Graham 2 days, 11 hours ago The historian Yasmin Khan, who wrote a book about the Partition of India that Vinay Patel, the writer of ‘Demons of the Punjab’, has tweeted about having read as research, wrote that the Partition is “a history layered with absence and silences”..

Yes, her name is Yasmin Khan.

Action/Reaction Theory - Wikiversity