OECD reports prepared by his team include: An Uphill Battle; Dare to Share: Willem graduated from the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, and holds a doctorate from St. Edmund Hall, University of Oxford.
Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific studies using computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; creating and using communications and entertainment media; finding and gathering information relevant to any particular purpose, and so on.
The list is virtually endless, and the possibilities are vast. Computing also has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used. For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer.
Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult. Because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but also as a discipline.
The term "computing" has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a ACM report on Computing as a Discipline: The fundamental question underlying all computing is "What can be efficiently automated?
In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machinesand before that, to human computers [ citation needed ]. History of computing and Timeline of computing The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.
Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstractions like the number arose, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purposes of civilization. These concepts include one-to-one correspondence the basis of countingcomparison to a standard used for measurementand the right triangle a device for assuring a right angle.
The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacusand it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa BC. Its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today.
This was the first known calculation aid - preceding Greek methods by 2, years[ citation needed ]. ComputerOutline of computersand Glossary of computer terms A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions.
The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm. Because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the central processing unit type.
The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express the computations performed by the computer.
They trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine.
Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions. Computer software and hardware[ edit ] Main articles: Software and Computer hardware Computer software or just "software", is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it.
Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes.
In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software.
The term was coined to contrast with the old term hardware meaning physical devices.An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense intuitive linear view.
So we won't experience years of progress in the 21st century -- it will be more like 20, years of progress (at today's rate). The returns, such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. Russell is the award-winning editor of the UK's most prominent marketing title, leading its multimedia development and team of journalists.
A trusted authority on marketing issues, he regularly hosts and appears on panels at industry events. he is also a regular contributor to national television and radio shows on marketing issues.
We are now just past what I referred to as "the next decade" (in the original paper) wherein so much was/continues to be determined about how - and how soon - we begin this next age - or if we do - before the planet (otherwise) overhauls itself. Dr Vèna Arielle Ahouansou is a medical doctor and the CEO of KEA Medicals Pharmaceutics & Technologies.
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