Population Genetics and Human Evolution Complete the following discussions: The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states that allele frequencies remain constant across generations unless certain influences are introduced, such as nonrandom matings or mutations. Describe the Hardy-Weinberg principle.
How and to whom do the financial statements make firms accountable? Demo By Russel Stone Uncategorized January 25, Introduction International accounting policies and practices in financial reporting are adopted to create equilibrium within the global context.
Financial reports are important to both shareholders and investors. Financial reports have special purposes and target audiences.
Financial reports have seven user groups including equity investor group existing and potential shareholdersloan creditor groups, employee group, analyst-adviser group, business contact group suppliers, trade creditors, customers and competitorsthe government for tax purposes and regulationand the general public that might have political and economic interests in knowing how a firm performed Alexander and Britton 9.
Understanding the contents of financial reports also varies among these different groups. Despite the differences among different users, their economic decisions are similar Young Hence, financial statements serve the information needs of various groups Young To create financial reports, some standards must be met.
An international accounting standard enables investors to examine companies in different countries from a similar perspective. International accounting standards encourage transparency and ensure relevant information is accessible to anyone who needs it Das, Shil, and Pramanil As a result, the transaction cost of conducting business in any part of the globe is reduced Accounting quality significantly improved the performance of firms that comply with IAS.
A more recent study by the same authors documented how the use of the International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS improved accounting quality and reduced the cost of capital. The accessibility and correctness of financial reports are necessary for investors to enable them to discern the performance of the company and decide whether to invest in them.
They also contributed to the current economic global storm that has crippled many markets. If financial reports were written to consider the limitations of such participants, the lack of appropriate knowledge to make right decisions in investing might not be one of the reasons why many lost their money in the markets Ewer Theoretical Underpinnings of Financial Reporting Accountability Stakeholder Theory Stakeholder theory involves a broader range of other stakeholders such as employees, customers, suppliers, bondholders, and the community, among others Feizizadeh Stakeholder theory is managerial because it guides the manager on how to conduct and manage business rather than addressing management and economic theorists.
Stakeholder theory has two core questions: From the stakeholder theory perspective, Mudrack identified several personality factors that are linked to the perception of rightness in corporate reporting and corporate social responsibility Empirical findings revealed that management supporting the Milton Friedman view of shareholder primacy tends to tweak acceptable ethical standards to promote maximization of shareholder wealth qtd in Mudrack This finding is consistent with Friedman, as respondents had no qualms violating ethical standards as long as the action benefits the organization Financial reports should also reflect how management intends to perform its responsibilities to users of the financial report by providing accurate and appropriate information useful in making economic decisions New Zealand Securities Commission 4.
The inclusion of non-financial information that is also useful for stakeholder decision-making is also necessary.
The study also revealed that intellectual capital reporting is vital to encourage companies to be more transparent about their activities.
Moreover, the study respondents also suggested that firms that disclose intellectual capital information should be rewarded with higher share prices The inclusion of non-financial information in financial reporting may be viewed by some as cumbersome and an additional expense for the company.
However, the qualitative value of the company based on non-financial information may provide credible evidence that the firm can maximize shareholder value.
Non-financial information is difficult to quantify. Nonetheless, voluntary disclosures of non-financial information should be present in financial reports. Incorporating stewardship information in the financial report is vital because the report is the best communication medium through which the company interacts with its shareholders and others that might be interested in the activities and performance of the company Lennard Agency Theory Compared with stakeholder theory, agency theory proposed a traditional view regarding the accountability of corporations.
In agency theory, the corporation is solely responsible to its shareholders and the company must strive to maximize profits to benefit shareholders Mudrack 38; Feizizadeh 1. Agency theory is the cornerstone of corporate governance because of its impact, policy, and practice. The prescription for the appropriate code of corporate governance, director training, and board procedures is influenced by agency theory Lan and Heracleous, Lan and Heracleous presented an alternative view regarding the principal-agent relationship in agency theory.Put simply, sustainability is our way of doing business, and our corporate responsibility agenda is framed around the Nokia values of being very human, engaging everyone, innovation and achieving vetconnexx.com communications have played a big role in billions of people's lives.
Compare and contrast the concepts of corporate social responsibility and citizenship.
Analyze ways ethical challenges affect the multiple functions of business. Use technology and information resources to research issues in business and society. Essay Corporate Social Responsibility 2 efficient.” (The good company, 22) My paper will support a company named Tim Hortons, and will argue how the effective use of strategy such as; corporate responsibility have just not only helped to create a positive image for the organization, but also has greatly created positive externalities.
Final Exam Essay Questions. 5 pages. Week 7 - Assignment Week 2 - Assignment. 2 pages. Chapter 4 Case Study Brazosport College TMGT - Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility (16 Documents) TMGT - International Business.
Top , words. Only lists based on a large, recent, balanced corpora of English. Essay Corporate Social Responsibility 2 Words | 11 Pages Corporate Social Responsibility Hashim Rizwan MOS Bill Iwrin Corporate social responsibility can simply be identified as a duty, which is not a legal obligation lately, under very much consideration by every multinationals, as well as the growing firm.