Instead, an honest assessment of the economic and regime-change policies that fuel migration is needed, reports Andrew Spannaus. By Andrew Spannaus Anti-establishment political forces in the both the United States and Europe have seized on the issue of illegal immigration, seen by many voters as a threat to both economic well-being and cultural identity, as a key component of their electoral strategies.
After the defeat of Cuban-style revolutionary movements throughout Latin America in the s and the overthrow of Salvador Allende in Chile inthe success of the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua in gave the Latin American Left a renewed sense of optimism about the possibility of revolutionary change.
This optimism, however, proved to be short lived. Thereafter, the conflicts degenerated into brutal, seemingly intractable, violence. The peace initiative launched by Costa Rican president Oscar Arias inthe latest in a series of domestic and international efforts to resolve the crisis, finally offered a way out of the violence and allowed for tentative steps toward the democratization of the isthmus.
Largely ignored by Globalization and religion in latin america essay academics before the revolutionary period, Central America experienced a boom in scholarship during this period as journalists and social scientists sought to explain the conflicts and situate them in their historical context.
Nonetheless, the majority of this scholarship rested upon a weak historiographical tradition in the region and bore the marks of the ideological conflicts of the Cold War.
Though the volume of works published diminished in the s, scholars began to add archival research to the sustained ethnographic fieldwork that had been underway since the s to further address issues such as the development of capitalism in the region, the relations between popular and revolutionary movements, and ethnic relations.
The focus of this collection is overwhelmingly on NicaraguaEl Salvadorand Guatemalathe countries that were in the spotlight during the s. Costa Rica and Honduras are addressed in the General Overviews in works that ask why revolutionary movements did not occur there, as well as in the literature on US Intervention that analyzes their roles in the Contra War against the Sandinistas.
General Overviews There are remarkably few overviews or comparative works that address the region as a whole, likely due to the difficulty of integrating what have been previously written as separate national narratives.
Torres-Rivas paved the way for comparative studies in the s, raising questions that are still of fundamental importance for much of the more recent scholarship. Dunkerley provides a very comprehensive political history of the 20th century.
WilliamsPaigeand Brockett examine the relationship between agrarian transformations and political conflicts. Vilas provides a comparative analysis of capitalist modernization in each country.
Land, Power, and Poverty: Allen and Unwin, Based primarily on secondary sources. Useful as an introduction to Central American agriculture, but specialists might find this less useful.
Power in the Isthmus: Attempts to explain similarities and differences between the nations. Strongest are the latter sections on the crisis of the s and s in Nicaragua and El Salvador. A good synthesis of all the scholarship produced up to that point and most useful as an introduction for non-specialists.
Revolution and the Rise of Democracy in Central America. Harvard University Press, Compares the cases of El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica to determine why they took three distinct paths to arrive at neoliberal democracy.
He concludes that their distinct landholding patterns are the primary variable. Contains a fascinating section on elite ideologies during the s.
Translated by Ricardo B. University of California Press, A short but highly readable overview of Central American history from the pre-Columbian era through the mids.
A great introduction to the region, especially for non-specialists. History and Society in Central America. University of Texas Press, Though more recent scholarship has challenged many of its arguments, it remains one of the most influential works on Central American history.
Heavy focus on the economy and class relations. Contains a final chapter updating the work to cover the period from to Between Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Market, State, and the Revolutions in Central America.
Best introduction on capitalist modernization in Central America and how it affected each country differently. Argues that the revolutions were in a large part the result of the closure of peaceful, electoral options for change.
States and Social Evolution: University of North Carolina Press, Oxford University Press, Excellent introduction to the broader sweep of Central American history. Contains a thorough guide to the scholarship that has been produced on Central America up to the late s.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
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So, the converts to regionally non-traditional religions i.e Mormonism and Fundamentalist Christianity in Latin America, have increased dramatically. The issue is complex and has many moving parts.
Globalization has, indeed, made the world a smaller place. Perhaps of greatest importance are the economic ties between Latin Americans in the U.S. and Latin America, as Latin Americans working in the U.S.
send billions of dollars to their home countries each year. Globalization has had an enormous effect on the Latin American economy, which is largely based on trade and (somewhat lessening) .
Introduction. The cycles of revolution and counterrevolution that characterized the Latin American Cold War reached their climax in the outbreak of violent conflicts that engulfed Central America in .
The Implications of Hyperglobalist Globalization on World Regions - Even though the globalization skeptics and the transformationalists both have viable interpretations of globalization, I believe that the hyperglobalist perspective is the most accurate.
War is a resultant, failed politics coupled to greed and avarice. The innocent suffer death and total destruction of their way of life and the result is refugees and poverty migrating to escape it.