Instructional and Assessment Guidelines By: Chard and Shirley V. Dickson This article defines phonological awareness and discusses historic and contemporary research findings regarding its relation to early reading.
Though areas to be assessed are similar for all, for gifted children, the assessment techniques and tests require special characteristics. While most professionals are trained to assess many kinds of children, few are specifically trained to assess in this particular area.
The general perception is that these youngsters, with abilities and strengths in many areas, have no special needs, educational or otherwise, that merit serious clinical attention.
For this reason, it is important that parents who suspect that their child may be gifted search for a professional with experience in working with this population.
Knowledge about these practices can help parents with level 1 writing assessment activities for children search.
These two activities are frequently discussed together and criticized together, when, in fact, they are quite different. As a psychologist, I have done both and will continue to do both for very different reasons.
Testing, or the individual administration of a standardized test, means presenting test items according to very specific pre-set directions and following an exact verbal script. The results are usually reported as numbers.
This is a limited activity and the information that it provides is similarly limited. Assessment, on the other hand, includes standardized test administration but goes well beyond it. Good test administration should be the same from person to person; that is, it should be independent of personal experience and personal viewpoints.
Assessment, especially clinical assessment, is highly dependent upon training, theoretical orientation, personal experience, research knowledge and clinical experience. In good test administration, the person administering the test should not have a major impact on the test results; in assessment, the person doing the assessment does have a major impact on the final result.
For these reasons, assessing children is part science and part art.
The science part is straightforward and largely concerns testing. The art part is difficult to describe, difficult to teach and essential. All tests and assessments vary with the age of the child, as we expect that children will do different things at different ages. In general, we chose to use an instrument that has been standardized with children of a specific age without regard to their ability levels.
Yet, gifted children will accomplish a variety of things earlier than other children or will accomplish them at a higher level than their age peers will. Assessment must adapt to this reality. There are two basic strategies for making this adaptation; the easiest is to use a test standardized for older children this is the out of level testing that is used in the talent searches.
For example, most children do not read before entering school, and therefore most assessments of preschool children do not routinely include reading. Some gifted preschool children do read early, and an adequate assessment of them should include measures of reading.
One way to accomplish this is to give an above age or grade level of the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test. A second strategy is to informally look for behaviors and skills that usually appear in older children. For example, an informal strategy for reading assessment is to take an inventory of the books that the child has read in the 6 months prior to the assessment.
The most important step is not to make assumptions about the child's level of accomplishment based upon age or upon grade, but rather select test materials that will permit a young child to demonstrate high level skills in a variety of areas. Each child, gifted or not, has his or her own history.
When a child is tested, for example, in the admission process for private schools or selective programs, parent information is often not collected. In assessment, however, the first step is to interview the parents to obtain the child's history in the areas of general development, education, health, social interactions and family interactions.
As a parent, you should be wary of any professional who plans to evaluate a child without taking a developmental history. The careful collection of information from parents, via report forms, checklists and most importantly direct interviewing, becomes the foundation upon which the individual nature of the assessment is built.
Parents, speaking to a professional for the first time, should feel free to say that they think that their child may be gifted. They should then hear a question like-"Why do you think that your child may be gifted?
What does your child do that suggests this? As with any interview technique, the value of the information obtained depends upon the skill of the interviewer and upon the biases of the interviewer. Several remarkable studies have had a particular impact on my thinking about the developmental pathways of gifted children and I want to direct your attention to those studies 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
In the academic world, there are debates about the meaning and the value of intelligence tests in general; at parent and school meetings, I have been asked many questions about intelligence tests and the meanings of different score patterns. After working with hundreds of children, my own view of the value of intelligence tests is this: IV and, yes, the Stanford-Binet: I use all three at different times.
For gifted children, I have frequently observed that a score on one intelligence test cannot be converted to a score on another intelligence by means of any formula.The diagnostic uses of assessment (determining the reasons for writing problems and the student's instructional needs) are best met by looking at the process of writing, i.e., the steps students go through and strategies they use as they work at writing.
First Grade: Writing Sample 1 First graders write many times a day to express their ideas and interests — they are writing with a purpose, through, stories, letters, and lists.
They can print clearly and leave spaces between words. Literacy data published by UNESCO displays that since , the adult literacy rate at the world level has increased by 5 percentage points every decade on average, from per cent in to per cent in However, for four decades, the population growth was so rapid that the number of illiterate adults kept increasing, rising from million in to million in Color Dance.
Level: Starter/beginner, Elementary Type: Game A song and interactive games on the topic of colors. Count with Me. Level: Starter/beginner, Elementary Type: Game A starter/beginner level song for children on the subject of numbers and counting.
Find language arts activities suitable for independent learning and homeschooling. This product is a MONEY SAVING BUNDLE of two of my writing activities for young learners.
Here is the description for Part 1: Kindergartners and First Graders love to write!