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This lesson introduces students to the complexity of history by focusing on the diverse activities of Black women in the nineteenth century. Historians have traditionally ignored free black women during this period, and furthermore oversimplified the lives of slave women. Using a variety of sources and documents, students will learn that many Black women, whether born slaves, free, or freed in later life, resisted the system that oppressed them, earned degrees, and became politically active before, during, and after the Civil War.
Related National History Standards Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction Standard 2: The course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people Standard 3: How various reconstruction plans succeeded or failed Historical Thinking Standards: Identify the author or source of the historical document or narrative and assess its credibility.
Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage. Identify the central question s the historical narrative addresses. Historical Research Capabilities A. Obtain historical data from a variety of sources. Support interpretations with historical evidence.
Formulate a position or course of action on an issue. Evaluate the implementation of a decision.
Objectives Students will learn how to read and interpret various primary and secondary sources and how to use them to draw conclusions about the issues that the authors faced during the nineteenth century. Students will read historical narratives imaginatively and in their proper context.
Students will view evidence of historical perspectives and draw upon visual and literary sources while studying the lives of nineteenth century black feminists, the issues they faced and their methods for solving them.
Topic Background In the latter half of the eighteenth century, as slavery and the slave trade were being outlawed in many Northern cities, it was increasingly becoming much more economically entrenched in the South1. As a result, by the middle of the nineteenth century, slavery had virtually disappeared from many Northern cities and had been replaced with thriving, successful and economically viable free Black communities.
In contrast, with the invention of Eli Whitney's cotton gin, the South began to depend heavily on cotton production and on slave labor2. Indeed, historians argue that if the cotton gin had not revived the American cotton industry, slavery might have ended in this country3. Since the importation of slaves had been outlawed, slaveholders began to realize that their slaves were a type of "stock" that would have to be reproduced rather than simply replaced if they died or ran away.
This realization changed the world of Black America and the world of the American slave system forever4. Southern slaveholders were then faced with a dilemma, how could they "create" and maintain a viable slave system within a free and independent nation?
This precedents sub silentio8 eventually became a part of legislation, when inthe South Carolina judicial system ruled that "slaves Sanford case that all people of African ancestry -- enslaved, newly freed or free-born -- could never become citizens of the United States and therefore had no rights that whites were bound to respect.
In addition, it justified chattel slavery, within a supposedly free country, and allowed inhumane conditions to exist lynchings, beatings, forced family separations, rape and near-starvation conditions were all a part of the daily lives of enslaved Black Americans.
It is important to note that even though slavery existed, the resistance on all levels by slaves to this condition existed as well.
Slaves were not just passively playing by the rules. Darlene Clark Hine in her book, A Shining Thread of Hope, notes that slaves created and maintained a complicated system that was "generally individualistic and aimed at maintaining what the slave master, and overseer had, in the course of their relationship, perceived as an acceptable level of work, shelter, food, punishment, and free time Slave resistance was aimed at maintaining what seemed to all concerned to be the status quo.
Black women, in addition to their field or house work, were routinely subjected to "forcible sexual intercourse" either by their owners, overseers or by "buck" slaves. Their refusal to be sexually owned played itself out in a number of different ways. Harriet Jacobs in Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl wrote about how she chose to give herself to another white man rather than to her master.
Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House wrote about how she resisted her master's advances for close to four years. Given the response to this resistance by the slaveholders, which ranged from severe beatings to death, to resist was to take a stand, stake a claim and put your life on the line.
Under these circumstances, the very act of resisting was heroic in-and- of-itself. Hine argues that within this climate of fear and violence, Black women resisted, time and time again.Early Anti-slavery Advocates in 18th-century Connecticut. Am I not a man and a brother?, ca.
The Influential Speak Out against Slavery. Outrage with slavery in Connecticut in the late 18th century sometimes became so fierce that it . one reason that south carolina embraced african slavery early int he colony's history is. during the mid to late eighteenth century many americans came to believe in republicanism a form of government that.
the most important element in the victory against great britain was the. Nov 12, · By the midth century, America’s westward expansion and the abolition movement provoked a great debate over slavery that would tear the nation apart in the bloody Civil War.
The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex. It was adopted on August 18, Century of Struggle.
Art criticism - Art criticism in the 18th century: Enlightenment theory: At the beginning of the 18th century, the Englishman Jonathan Richardson became the first person to develop a system of art criticism.
In An Essay on the Whole Art of Criticism as It Relates to Painting and An Argument in Behalf of the Science of a Connoisseur (both ), he develops a practical system of critical.
Britain’s involvement in the transatlantic slave trade started in the 16th century.
In the latter half of the eighteenth century, as slavery and the slave trade were being outlawed in many Northern cities, it was increasingly becoming much more economically entrenched in the South vetconnexx.com a result, by the middle of the nineteenth century, slavery had virtually disappeared from many Northern cities and had been replaced with thriving, successful and economically viable free Black. Most divorce petitions in the early nineteenth century cited emotional complaints. D. In most states, divorce became more difficult to obtain because new laws encouraged stern self . Arguments and Justifications. What were the arguments of the pro-slavery lobby? The pro-slavery lobby put forward a number of arguments to defend the trade and show how important it was to Britain.
Gradually, over time, people from all walks of life started to speak out against it. They formed a campaign called ‘Abolition’ which aimed to raise public awareness about the horrors of slavery and eventually to persuade the Members of Parliament that it.