Indeed, looking at his self portraits, we discover the handsome man he was, with his face reflecting the purity of his soul and his intelligence. Self-Portrait, - Detail Museo del Prado, Madrid His contemporaries were impressed by his physical appearance, and his mental and moral qualities, which were no less remarkable. He studied the art principles, made rigorous theoretical observations, meticulously recorded the results of his investigations, and then he gave the resulting written instructions to his contemporaries. In the 16th Century, the city was the chief centre of the German artistic life.
The "lack of writers" he referred to may be illustrated by comparing the number of volumes in Migne 's Patrologia Latina containing the work of Latin writers from the 10th century the heart of the age he called 'dark' with the number containing the work of writers from the preceding and succeeding centuries.
A minority of these writers were historians. Medieval production of manuscripts. Note that this graph does not include the Byzantine Empire. There is a sharp drop from 34 volumes in the 9th century to just 8 in the 10th.
The 11th century, with 13, evidences a certain recovery, and the 12th century, with 40, surpasses the 9th, something the 13th, with just 26, fails to do.
There was indeed a 'dark age', in Baronius's sense of a "lack of writers", between the Carolingian Renaissance in the 9th century and the beginnings, some time in the 11th, of what has been called the Renaissance of the 12th century.
Furthermore, there was an earlier period of "lack of writers" during the 7th and 8th centuries. So, in Western Europe, two 'dark ages' can be identified, separated by the brilliant but brief Carolingian Renaissance.
Baronius's 'dark age' seems to have struck historians, for it was in the 17th century that the term started to proliferate in various European languages, with his original Latin term saeculum obscurum being reserved for the period he had applied it to.
But while some, following Baronius, used 'dark age' neutrally to refer to a dearth of written records, others used it pejoratively, lapsing into that lack of objectivity that has discredited the term for many modern historians. The first British historian to use the term was most likely Gilbert Burnetin the form 'darker ages' which appears several times in his work during the later 17th century.
Enlightenment[ edit ] During the Age of Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries, many critical thinkers saw religion as antithetical to reason.
Consequently, an evolution had occurred in at least three ways. Petrarch's original metaphor of light versus dark has expanded over time, implicitly at least. Even if later humanists no longer saw themselves living in a dark age, their times were still not light enough for 18th-century writers who saw themselves as living in the real Age of Enlightenment, while the period to be condemned stretched to include what we now call Early Modern times.
Additionally, Petrarch's metaphor of darkness, which he used mainly to deplore what he saw as a lack of secular achievement, was sharpened to take on a more explicitly anti-religious and anti-clerical meaning.
Nevertheless, the term 'Middle Ages', used by Biondo and other early humanists after Petrarch, was in general use before the 18th century to denote the period before the Renaissance.
The earliest recorded use of the English word "medieval" was in The concept of the Dark Ages was also in use, but by the 18th century it tended to be confined to the earlier part of this period. Romanticism[ edit ] In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the Romantics reversed the negative assessment of Enlightenment critics with a vogue for medievalism.
This stimulated interest in the Middle Ages, which for the following generation began to take on the idyllic image of an "Age of Faith". This, reacting to a world dominated by Enlightenment rationalismexpressed a romantic view of a Golden Age of chivalry.
The Middle Ages were seen with nostalgia as a period of social and environmental harmony and spiritual inspiration, in contrast to the excesses of the French Revolution and, most of all, to the environmental and social upheavals and utilitarianism of the developing Industrial Revolution.
Just as Petrarch had twisted the meaning of light versus darkness, so the Romantics had twisted the judgment of the Enlightenment.
However, the period they idealized was largely the High Middle Agesextending into Early Modern times. In one respect, this negated the religious aspect of Petrarch's judgment, since these later centuries were those when the power and prestige of the Church were at their height.
To many, the scope of the Dark Ages was becoming divorced from this period, denoting mainly the centuries immediately following the fall of Rome.
Modern academic use[ edit ] See also:A History Of The Renaissance Period History Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: which acted as a bridge between the middle Ages and the Renaissance, and was followed by Mannerism, which bridged the gap between the Renaissance and the Baroque.
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay. Updated September JUMP TO: Terms & Glossaries / Timelines / Maps / Feudalism - Daily Life - Carolingian Empire/Charlemagne. The Crusades - Heraldry - Chivalry - Knighthood / War, Warfare & Weaponry.
Important People / Law / Science & Technology /. Castles / Medieval Women / Religion & The Church. The Black Death (Plague). Renaissance Art effectively superseded and ended art period progressing during the Middle Ages, and this mirrored social trends of increasing wealth and prosperity, upward mobility, and technological advances of the time.
- Comparisons of middle Ages and renaissance Introduction Middle Ages were the most devastated and dark periods that Europeans had ever experienced. These periods were worse after one another. Essay on the Middle Ages - Essay on the middle ages The Canterbury Tales by Chaucer Explore the use Chaucer makes of parody by referring .
umilta website, julian of norwich, her showing of love and its contexts © julia bolton holloway || julian of norwich || showing of love || her texts || her. Middle Ages vs Renaissance Art Periods Essay When seeking two art periods to compare and contrast, fewer artistic examples provide a starker depiction of radically changing ideas and mentality than the art of the Middle Ages .